Association of Ultrasonographic Findings and Thyroid Malignancy: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objective: To determine the association of thyroid malignancy and the following ultrasonographic findings: presence of solid hypoechoic nodule, irregular margins (infiltrative, microlobulated, or speculated), microcalcifications or disrupted rim calcifications with small extrusive hypoechoic soft tissue component, taller than wide shape of the thyroid nodule, and evidence of extrathyroidal extension.
Design: Cross-Sectional Study
Setting: Tertiary Government Training Hospital
Participants: Records of patients admitted to the Otorhinolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery ward with a diagnosis of nodular non-toxic goiter, multinodular non-toxic goiter, and thyroid malignancy who underwent thyroid surgery between January 2017 and June 2018 were considered for inclusion.
Results: A total of 33 patients, 7 males and 26 females, were included in this study. Patients’ age ranged from 26 to 69 years with an average of 46 years. Thirteen (39.4%) had malignant while 20 (60.6%) had benign histopathologic results. There was a significant association between presence of solid hypoechoic nodule (Fisher exact, n = 33, p = .0047), irregular margins and microcalcifications with malignant histopathology results (X2 (df = 1, N = 33) = 8.57, p = .003). No significant difference was noted in the proportion of subjects with malignancy according to taller than wide nodules (Fisher exact, n = 33, p = 1.000) or presence of extrathyroidal extension nodules or presence of extrathyroidal extension (Fisher exact, n = 33, p = .276). On multivariate analysis using logistic regression, only microcalcification was found to be a significant predictor of malignancy (OR = 8.96, 95% CI: 1.02 – 87.19, p = .05).
Conclusion: There was a significant association between presence of solid hypoechoic nodule, margins and microcalcifications with thyroid carcinoma. Only microcalcification was found to be a significant predictor of thyroid malignancy on ultrasound, although our confidence interval was broad.
Keywords: calcifications; thyroid; thyroid carcinoma; thyroid nodule; ultrasonography
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