Timing of Tracheostomy and Outcomes in Adults with Moderate and Severe Tetanus
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the timing of tracheostomy and relationship to outcomes (length of hospital stay, length of mechanical ventilation, morbidity and mortality rate) in adults with moderate and severe tetanus.
Design: Cross-Sectional Study
Setting: Tertiary Government Training Hospital
Patients: All adult patients (19 years old and above) diagnosed with moderate and severe stage tetanus from January 2015 to January 2018 were considered for inclusion.
Results: There were 109 patients included in this study, majority were males (n=95) with a male to female ratio of 7:1. Most belonged to the 51-60 years age group (mean: 53.7 SD: +/-16.1). Based on Cole Tetanus staging, the majority presented with severe stage tetanus (67.9%; n=74). Only 35.8% (n=39) were admitted at the Intensive Care Unit. Early tracheostomy was performed in 56.0% (n=61) of the patients (mean 6.3 hours SD: +/- 4.61). Mortality rate was noted to be 52.3% (n=57). Overall, early tracheostomy among moderate to severe stage tetanus patients showed shorter length of hospital stay and length of mechanical ventilation than late tracheostomy (tracheostomy >24 hours) (p-value < .05). However, no significant difference was noted for timing of tracheostomy in terms of morbidity and mortality rate (p-value > .05).
Conclusion: Early tracheostomy within less than 24 hours from time of admission for moderate and severe tetanus is associated with shorter length of hospital stay and mechanical ventilation than late tracheostomy, and may play a role in tetanus management.
Keywords: tracheostomy; tetanus; hospital stay; mechanical ventilation; morbidity; mortality
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